AIR POLLUTION IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC IN 2010

Czech Hydrometeorological Institute - Air Quality Protection Division




I. ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS EMISSION IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

The Department of Emissions and Sources has been authorized by the Ministry of the Environment to carry out emission inventories of air pollutants and greenhouse gases. In addition to the national and sector inventories, also inventories based on administrative units are produced (regions or districts). The methods are described at the websites www.chmi.cz under AIR QUALITY/Emission inventory.

I.1 Atmospheric pollutants emissions

Pursuant to the legislation which came into force in 2002 air pollution sources are divided into several categories to carry out emission inventories. Complying with this categorisation, the Air Quality Information System (ISKO) operated by CHMI includes REZZO databases (Register of Emissions and Air Pollution Sources) which serve for archiving and presenting data on stationary and mobile air pollution sources.
Extra large, large and medium-sized air pollution sources are monitored individually as point sources, small sources at regional and local (only household heating) level as area sources and mobile sources as line sources (road transport in sections controlled by vehicle census) and as area sources at regional level (other mobile sources).

    I. Extra large and large sources – REZZO 1
    II. Medium-sized sources – REZZO 2
    III. Small sources – REZZO 3
    IV. Mobile sources – REZZO 4

The collection of data of the 2010 Summary operational records of extra large, large and medium-sized sources which are the basis of the REZZO 1 and 2 databases, used the forms the contents of which was set by a legislative document. The operators of extra large, large and medium-sized sources reported the data pursuant to the requirements of the Decree of the Ministry of the Environment No. 205/2009 Coll., which came into force in August 2009. The list of data of Summary operational records is given in Annex 7. There is also a significant change in the reporting procedure itself. According to the requirements of the Act No. 25/2008 Coll. on Integrated Pollution Register Act (IRZ) and Integrated System of Compliance with Reporting Duty in Environmental Areas (ISPOP) almost all 25000 subjects reported the data according to the data standard which included also the validation control aimed mainly at the completeness and logical correctness of the reporting. The form F_OVZ_SPOJ was obligatory for the reporting (see www.ispop.cz).

Final data on emissions of all monitored sources are not available by the deadline of the Yearbook. Consequently, emission data for the year 2010 presented in the tables are preliminary, nevertheless the schedule of data processing for REZZO will be much shorter as compared with the previous years due to data collection directly in the form of standardized data.

Table I.1.1 documents data on total emissions of basic air pollutants in 2009, and namely total suspended particles (TSP), SO2, NOx, CO, volatile organic compounds (VOC) and ammonia (NH3), and the shares contributed by each of the emission source categories to total air pollutant emissions. Preliminary data on the amount of emissions of basic pollutants in 2010 are shown in Tab. I.1.2. The development of total emissions of basic pollutants in 1990–2010 is shown in Fig. I.1.1. In comparison with the year 2009 there was recorded again the decrease of emissions in almost all basic pollutants. The comparison of year-to-year development of the data on emissions in individual categories in 2007–2010 is presented in Fig. I.1.2.

Emissions from the monitored area sources in the Czech Republic

The air pollution sources monitored within the REZZO 3 include emissions from household heating, fugitive dust emissions from building and agricultural activity, ammonia emissions from non-monitored breeding of farm animals and application of mineral fertilizers and VOC emissions from the use of organic solvents.

With the exception of emissions from household heating, other groups of sources are calculated exclusively with the use of data obtained within the national statistical monitoring and the potential year-to year changes ensue usually from the development of basic statistical indicators. On the contrary, the year-to year changes of the amount of emissions from household heating are dependent primarily on the character of the heating season, which is expressed in the model by the number of degree days, and on the changes of the compositions of combustions appliances. While the heating seasons in the years 2006–2009 had similar course of temperatures below the normal, the heating season of the year 2010 ranks among the coldest ones in the recent 10 years (Fig. I.1.4). In 2010 approximately 17 % of households used solid fuels for heating, out of which almost one half is represented by old solid-fuel burning appliances which have the worst qualities as concerns emission production. The lifetime of such appliances is several dozens of years and they are sold still today due to their price. The sale statistics of solid fuel boilers, hearths and heaters up to 50 kW (Fig. I.1.5) shows that in 2003 the solid fuel burning appliances (solid fuel cast iron boilers) were in a great demand and every year their numbers are increasing by several thousands.

Emissions from waste incineration plants and their share on total emissions

Pursuant to Art. 4, par. (8) of the Clean Air Act No. 86/2002 Coll., waste incineration plants are ranked among extra large and large air pollution sources and are registered within the REZZO 1 category.
For the purpose of emission inventory, the majority of data on pollutants is obtained from the Summary operational records; the respective pollutants are listed in Annex 5 to the Government Order No. 354/2002 Coll., which sets the emission limit values pursuant to Annex V of the Directive 2000/76/EC on waste incineration.

The following substances are reported within the Summary operational records:

  • basic pollutants: solid particles, sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and organic substances expressed as total organic carbon (TOC)

  • heavy metals: lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni)

  • polychlorinated dibenzodioxines and dibenzofuranes (PCDD/F)

Other pollutants, included in the emission inventory and not reported within the Summary operational records, are calculated with the use of emission factors and the amount of combusted waste in tonnes per year.

Emission data processed into charts with the help of GIS are shown in Figs. I.1.5–I.1.8. Emission densities for NOx, TSP, sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide are plotted in 5 x 5-km grid-squares. The charts are based on emissions from stationary sources (REZZO 1 to 3) and mobile sources (REZZO 4) for the year 2009, with regional disaggregation of emissions from line sources according to the updated 2005 vehicle census.
 

Emissions assessment

The year-to-year development of emissions was influenced by several factors. There was recovery of metallurgy and thus the emissions of CO and solid pollutants increased again. The winter period was colder and this caused the increase of emissions from household heating. On the contrary, emissions from mobile sources decreased, mainly due to the higher rate of the car fleet exchange.

Tab. I.1.1 Total emissions of basic air pollutants in 2009 – final data

Tab. I.1.2 Total emissions of basic air pollutants in 2010 – preliminary data

Tab. I.1.3 Share of emissions of basic pollutants from waste incineration plants in total emissions in 2009


Fig. I.1.1 Total emissions of basic pollutants in the Czech Republic between 1990 and 2010

Fig. I.1.2 The comparison of year-to-year development of the data on emissions in individual categories in 2007–2010

Fig. I.1.3 Fuel consumption in REZZO 3 sources, 1992–2010

Fig. I.1.4 Sale of solid fuel boilers, hearths and heaters up to 50 kW in 1996–2010 (source: APTT)

Fig. I.1.5 Nitrogen oxides emission density from 5x5 km squares, 2009

Fig. I.1.6 Emission density of total suspended particles from 5x5 km squares, 2009

Fig. I.1.7 Sulphur dioxide emission density from 5x5 km squares, 2009

Fig. I.1.8 Carbon monoxide emission density from 5x5 km squares, 2009