AIR POLLUTION IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC IN 2010

Czech Hydrometeorological Institute - Air Quality Protection Division




Database for Annual Processing and the Air Quality Information System

This Yearbook is the result of annual data processing of the systematically collected air pollution, emission data and data on the quality of atmospheric precipitation stored in the respective databases of the Air Quality Information System (ISKO). ISKO has been developed and operated since the beginning of 1992. The system is based on state-of-the-art information technologies and it represents an integrated system for nation-wide comprehensive assessment of the status and development of air quality. The system includes the collection, storage and processing of data from automatic and manually-operated air pollution monitoring networks in the Czech Republic, and the storage and processing of data on emissions and air pollution sources. The Internal (later Air Pollution) Information System (IIS) has become an integral part of ISKO, as have other air quality databases, especially data entered in the register of emissions from extra large and large pollution sources (REZZO 1) and also the data on chemical composition of precipitation and atmospheric deposition. In 1993 the emission database was extended to include the outputs of medium-sized, individually monitored air pollution sources (REZZO 2). Together with air pollution data also supplementary meteorological data measured at the majority of automated air pollution stations are stored in the database.

The Air Quality Information System collects and generally provides access to data gathered within major ambient air pollution monitoring networks. It thus provides for a more effective and general utilisation of the expensive data. The integrated regionalised evaluation of air pollution levels, and analysis of the development over time of the status of air pollution in the Czech Republic would not be feasible without collecting and archiving systematically at one place all the air pollution data available.

A number of the institutions mentioned earlier have been contributing to the air pollution database for many years. Information on the concentrations of sulphur dioxide and suspended particulate matter (SPM) obtained from the CHMIs stations in northern Bohemia and in Prague, has been archived since 1971.

Methodical development and technical provision for annual nation-wide procession and keeping of records of the REZZO 1 and REZZO 2 databases are carried out by CHMI. In the framework of the emission coverage of ISKO the annual overviews of emission data and supplementary technical information have been filed since 1993, from about 3600 operators of extra large and large sources. Within the REZZO 2 database files are kept of emission and supplementary technical data from more than 25,000 medium-sized sources, including data service.

The operational summaries constitute the basic source of information for processing the REZZO 1 and REZZO 2 databases. In 2010, for the first time, also the collection of data through the Integrated System of Compliance with Reporting Duty in Environmental Areas (ISPOP) implemented by the Act No. 25/2008 Coll. was used. Emissions from small sources (household heating units) are inventoried according to the methodology developed in 1997 and based on the 1991 and 2001 General Census data. The output includes information on the consumption of principal fuels in households. The data are regularly (once a year) updated in cooperation with regional fuels and energy suppliers. The final output of the REZZO 3 database consists in data on emission of pollutants and on fuel composition for household heating units at local level. In addition to data on household heating, also data on volatile organic compounds from the used solvents, as well as ammonia and solid pollutants from farm animals breeding and building activity are re-calculated in the REZZO 3 database. The total balance of small sources does not include data on emission from small plants for which payments are made to the local and municipal authorities.

Data on emissions from REZZO 4 sources cover road, railway, water and air transport based on processing by the Transport Research Centre (CDV) in Brno and off-road mobile sources (agriculture, building industry etc.) processed from the data on fuel consumptions (ČSÚ, VÚZT).

Fig. -1 schematically depicts ISKOs links to data sources and co-operating systems. The scheme outlines the interconnection of air quality monitoring networks and sources of data on air emission with data processing and information layers represented by ISKO, and the linkage to a higher-level layer – cross-sectional information systems. The actual interconnection is carried out mainly through exchange of data by e-mail, further on magnetic media, over switched data lines and, in case of data from the automated air pollution monitoring (AIM) network, mainly over radio transmission.

The Tabular Survey and the Yearbook have been completely produced with the help of a computer system based on an innovated concept. It consists of a computer network around a database server with the multi-user relational database system installed and working under the Unix operating system. The new data model ISKO2 project was implemented in 2003 under RSBMS Oracle which is constantly being developed. ISKO2 meets the growing demands on data presentation in various forms incl. internet publication. The concept of the system is based on distributed processing in local networks on the workstations and PCs, with direct access of processing and analytical programs – such as the Geographic Information System (ARC/INFO and ArcView), statistical programs (SPSS, Systat), spreadsheet and graphic programs – to the data stored in the central database which features uninterrupted and backed-up operation.

The Czech Hydrometeorological Institute has its regional offices in all the former regional capitals; these are mainly concerned with measurements, and data collection and data initial processing within their respective regions. The offices are connected to the central system in Prague via CHMIs private WAN data network operating with TCP/IP protocol.

The selected information, tables, graphs and maps on air quality published in the Tabular Survey and in the Yearbook are accessible in the internet www.chmi.cz, where you can find other surveys relevant to ambient air pollution. At the website www.chmi.cz under Air Quality there are presented, with a small time lag, the results of measurements from AIM CHMI stations in the form of tables and the so called air quality index; the currently measured data can be displayed also in the form of graphs. Further, there are presented the estimates of spatial distribution of concentrations of currently measured data (non-verified) of PM10, SO2, NO2 and O3.

Fig. –1 Scheme of ISKOs links to data sources and co-operating systems 2010