Czech Hydrometeorological Institute - Air Quality Protection Division


Well-designed information support to facilitate decision-making processes is essential for the deployment of measures intended to improve the quality of the air in particular, and of the environment in general. In respect of air quality control regular, nation-wide assessment of air quality based on systematic monitoring and evaluation of air pollution data, precipitation quality data and emission data has become part of the standard service provided by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute. An extensive set of tools for monitoring and objective assessment of air quality and its development in the territory of the Czech Republic has been created, and is being constantly upgraded. In addition to assessments, studies, research reports and other documents prepared to meet specific purposes and requirements, it is the set of instruments for objective assessment, as developed and made available on a systematic basis, which constitutes the fundamental part of information support for the air quality control.

One of the key components of this set of air quality monitoring and assessment tools is the Air Quality Information System (ISKO); one of the regular outputs of processing, on an annual basis, the data collected over the year in the ISKO database consists of the summary annual tabular survey Air Pollution and Atmospheric Deposition in Data, the Czech Republic (hereinafter the Tabular Survey), and this Yearbook, Air Pollution in the Czech Republic. These annual surveys are intended mainly for use by institutions and organisations concerned with the air and environment protection in this country. They are provided free-of-charge to state administration bodies concerned with air protection (the Ministry of the Environment of the Czech Republic, Regional Offices of the Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Departments of the regional authorities and of local authorities in basic administrative units with enlarged competencies, and the Czech Environmental Inspectorate, including its Regional Inspectorates), to all agencies that contribute to the ISKO database, including the Regional Public Health Services and Health Institutes, and to other selected entities. Every effort is made to improve and extend both the Tabular Survey and the Yearbook every year, with emphasis on information quality, data interpretation and formal aspects, based on our own knowledge and experience and the users comments.

This Yearbook presents comprehensively in the form of tables, graphs and maps a summary overview of the status of air quality, including assessment of atmospheric deposition. While the Tabular Survey, which is published regularly before the Yearbook, provides an objective presentation of verified air pollution data and data on the chemical composition of atmospheric precipitation at individual localities, this Yearbook is focused mainly on map presentation showing the countrys territory loads caused by air pollution.
The assessment of ambient air quality is treated pursuant to the valid national legislation (Clean Air Act No. 86/2002 Coll. as amended [7] and Government Order No. 350/2002 Coll. as amended [8]) meeting the EU directives. The evaluation is carried out with regard to human health protection and the protection of ecosystems and vegetation respectively. This is the necessary prerequisite for the definition of areas with deteriorated air quality for which programmes aimed at the improvement of air quality or regulatory codes are required by the new legislation.

The evaluation of spatial distribution of air pollution characteristics presented in the Yearbook serves as the basis for mapping and listing the areas with deteriorated air quality pursuant to Clean Air Act. Starting from 2004 the mapping of air quality characteristics on the territory of the Czech Republic uses 1x1 km grids. The maps are created on the basis of input data (i.e. measured values).
In 2003 the national ambient air monitoring network was significantly changed in order to meet the requirements of the new legislation. The scope of the monitored pollutant increased, there were changes in the number of stations monitoring different pollutants, and several stations have been relocated. The reconstruction of the monitoring network was finished in 2004.

In the localities where there is no measurement the model-based data or experts estimates are used. The maps are produced in cooperation with the specialists from CHMI branch offices who are acquainted with the detailed situation in the given region. The result maps of individual air quality characteristics are summed up into the maps of overall air quality assessment with regard to health protection and ecosystem and vegetation protection. On the basis of these summary maps the tables are produced and sent to the Ministry of the Environment as background materials for defining the areas with deteriorated air quality.

In conclusion, it should be noted that this publication, and particularly the database on which it relies have only been made possible thanks to the efforts of numerous individuals, the staff of the Institutes branches; of its Air Quality Protection Divisions laboratories; and of cooperating organisations. In addition to the data obtained from the Czech Hydrometeorological Institutes own network and from the health institutes, the ISKO air pollution database receives and stores every year data from ČEZ, a.s.; the Forest Management and Gamekeeping Research Institute; Czech Geological Survey (ČGÚ); Water Management Research Institute (VÚV), Research Institute of Plant Production (VÚRV) and from stations of municipal authorities. Since 1996, data for the German part of the former Black Triangle provided by Landesamt fr Umwelt und Geologie, Dresden, stored and presented in the ISKO air pollution database, have also been included both in the Tabular Survey and in this Yearbook. Since 1997 data from the border area for the Polish part provided by Wojewodski Inspektorat Ochrony Srodowiska in Jelenia Gora have been exchanged likewise.
The responsibility for the collection and verification of data entered in the register of emissions from extra large and large pollution sources, REZZO 1, rests with the Czech Environmental Inspectorate. The collection and verification of data on emissions from medium-sized sources monitored within the REZZO 2, which represents a wide-scope activity, is the responsibility of the municipal authorities with extended competences. The data for inventories of emissions from mobile sources were processed by the experts from the Transport Research Centre (CDV) Brno. Basic topographic data were made available to the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute in a digitised form by the Military Topographic Institute in Dobruška. Important information was received from the Czech Statistical Office and other institutions.

The Yearbook has been prepared and edited by a team of authors and editors of the Air Quality Protection Division of the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute, particularly from the Air Quality Information System Department, the Department of Emissions and Sources, the Department of Modelling and Experts Reports and the Department of Impact and Risk Assessment, including the colleagues from CHMI regional offices. Assistance and important technical support have been provided by IDEA-ENVI, Ltd.

Prague, August 2006

Ing. Jaroslav Šantroch , CSc.
Deputy Director for Air Quality Protection