AIR POLLUTION IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC IN 2005
Czech Hydrometeorological Institute - Air Quality Protection Division
I. ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS EMISSION IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC
Pursuant to the legislation which came into force in 2002 air pollution sources are divided into several categories to carry out emission inventories. Complying with this categorisation, the ISKO system operated by CHMI includes REZZO 1–4 databases (Register of Emissions and Air Pollution Sources) which serve for archiving and presenting data on stationary and mobile air pollution sources.
Extra large, large and medium-sized air pollution sources are monitored individually as point sources, small sources at local level as area sources and mobile sources as line sources (road transport in sections controlled by vehicle census) and as area sources at district level (other mobile sources).
I. Extra large and large pollution sources - REZZO 1
The data used in the 2005 emission inventory of air pollutants from extra large and large sources (c. 3500 sources) are extracted from the summary operational inventory submitted by source operators to the Czech Environmental Inspection Office (ČIŽP) which is in charge of data collection and verification. Based on these data the REZZO 1 database is also updated, and namely the constant and variable data on operation of air pollution sources (categorisation of sources, parameters, fuel consumption and emission quantity). The medium-sized sources category includes data on about 30,000 sources. Data processing for emission inventory and REZZO 2 database is in charge of the authorities of the basic administrative units with extended competencies.
Final data on emissions from REZZO 1 and REZZO 2 sources were not available by the deadline of the Yearbook. Consequently, emission data for the year 2005 presented in the tables are preliminary.
Emissions from small sources (local heating units) have been inventoried based on the 1991 and 2001 General Census. Emission inventory is based on the model using updated data on climatic conditions, figures on heat requirements for household heating and on consumption of particular fuel types calculated from them. Fuel consumption structure is based on General Census information on the prevailing way of household heating and on the used types of energy, updated annually according to data submitted by fuels and energy central suppliers.
Inventories of emissions from transport, falling within the competency of the Ministry of Transport, have been processed by the Transport Research Centre (CDV) Brno based on the updated method of determination of transport emissions. In connection with the correction of basic input activity data, recalculations of emissions are carried out at present, beginning from the year 2000. Inventories of emissions from other mobile sources will be specified on the basis of recalculated CDV data, reported statistical data and the respective emission factors.
Table I.1 documents preliminary data on total
emissions of basic air pollutants in 2005, and namely solid particles, SO2,
NOx, CO, volatile organic compounds (VOC) and ammonia (NH3),
and the shares contributed by each of the emission source categories to total
air pollutant emissions. More detailed data on regionally distributed emissions
are shown in the CHMI website. The development of total emissions of basic pollutants in 1990–2005 including
the recalculations of emissions from mobile sources so far for the period
2002–2005 are shown in Fig. I.1.
The emissions and removals inventory of gases influencing the climatic system
of the Earth is carried out in accordance with continuously improved
international IPCC methodology. This inventory is also used for checking the
complying with the international obligations set by the Kyoto Protocol. The
Czech Republic will have to reduce the total GHG emissions by 8 % as compared
with the reference year 1990 by 2008–2012. The regular monitoring of GHG
emissions meets also the requirements of the Decision No. 280/2004/EC of the
European Parliament and of the Council. Due to the development of the methods
and the rigorous implementation of QA/QC mechanisms the values are recalculated
if necessary and therefore minor changes may occur in the shown data.
In the Czech Republic, the total GHG emissions including their removals expressed as equivalent values of carbon dioxide (CO2ekv) declined from 194.5 mil. tons in 1990 to 142.3 mil. tons in 2004 (see Tab. I.2). The emissions (without removals from land use and forestry) decreased from 196.2 mil tons to 147.2 mil tons. Consequently, compared with the reference year 1990 they declined by 25 %. Since 1995 emissions of HFC, PFC and SF6 (substances containing fluorine, the so-called F-gases), the influence of which is also controlled by the Kyoto Protocol, have been included. Their current share in total GHG emissions amounts to 0.5 % in the Czech Republic. In 2004, the relevant shares in total emissions were 86.0 % for CO2, 7.7 % for CH4 and 5.8 % for N2O. No significant changes have been observed during the recent years.
Table I.4 covers heavy metals (HM) and POPs emissions. The emission inventories were produced mainly with the use of activity data (fuel and propellant consumption, incinerated waste quantity, statistical data on the production of selected technologies) and of the respective emission factors.
Fig. I.2 shows the changes in the structure of consumption of principal fuels of REZZO 1 sources in the period 1990–2004. Significant decrease in the consumption of brown coal (by 27 %) and residual oil (by 70 %) by large emission sources contributed to a long-term decline in SO2 and solid particles, mainly in the 1990–1997 period. The development of consumption of principal fuels of REZZO 3 sources between 1992 (data based on the inventory carried out by TECO Milevsko) and 2005 is shown in Fig. I.3. Changes in residential heating in 2005 (updated situation) as compared to 1991 (data provided by General Census) are shown in Fig. I.4. The comparison of emissions from residential heating with regard to temperature changes during the heating season is shown in Fig. I.5.
Emission data processed into charts with the help of GIS are shown in Figs. I.6, I.7, I.8 and I.9. Emission densities for solid particles, SO2, NOx and CO are plotted in 5 x 5-km grid-squares. The charts are based on current emissions from stationary sources (REZZO 1 to 3) and mobile sources (REZZO 4) for 2004, with regional disaggregation of emissions from line sources according to the 2000 vehicle census.